Clinical transfusion comprises all clinical aspects of blood transfusion and promotes safe practice and appropriate use of blood (components). This includes both the risks and benefits of transfusion as well as close monitoring of patients. Patients should only be transfused when there is evidence for potential benefit. Occasionally, transfusion alternatives might be considered. In order to optimize patient care in need for blood transfusion, it is crucial to follow an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach. Patient Blood Management (PBM) comprises patient evaluation and clinical management surrounding this decision-making process. This includes application of appropriate indications, minimization of blood loss and optimization of patient red cells. PBM can reduce allogeneic blood transfusions and health-care costs, while ensuring that blood components are available for patients.